Decoding the Acronyms of Manufacturing

Definitions of common abbreviations used in product development

Sometimes acronyms used in the manufacturing process can be difficult to understand, let alone translate into words. Take the term Start of Production, or SOP, for example. It could stand for Standard Operating Procedure, Sales and Operation Planning, Statement of Principles or Statement of Purpose.

JVIS aims to make development and production as easily understood as possible. Don’t waste time wading through the alphabet soup of acronyms used in components production. Below are simple definitions of some of the most common acronyms JVIS uses in manufacturing.

Bill of Material (BOM) is a detailed list of parts, items, assemblies and other materials necessary to make a product, as well as instructions required for gathering and using the essential materials. The bill of materials can be perceived as the list of ingredients and recipe for creating a final product. (1)

Electronic Bill of Material (EBOM) is a web-based electronic BOM system that allows users, both internal and external, to access, update and share data in real time from their desktop throughout the entire research and development process. (2)

Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) is a standardized method in the automotive industry that helps manufacturers and suppliers communicate and approve designs and processes before, during and after production. PPAP helps guarantee the methods used to manufacture parts can reliably reproduce the parts at stated production rates during routine production runs. (3)

Part Submission Warrant (PSW) is a procedure by which the supplier gives evidence to a customer demonstrating to the client the requirements of delivery date, quality, process capability and production rate can all be achieved. (4)

Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (DFMEA) is a detailed approach used for identifying conceivable risks introduced in a new or changed design of a service or product. It identifies risks on a program as early as possible, which provides the best opportunity for verified modification prior to program launch. (5)

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) helps identify probable failure modes based on experience with like products and processes – or based on common physics of failure logic. It is used in manufacturing in different phases of the product life cycle. (6)

Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) is an analysis procedure used to analyze manufacturing processes at the system, subsystem or component levels. (7)

Engineering Change Request (ECR) describes an identified problem or suggested improvement in a product, used to record the discussion surrounding the issue, determine the affected parts and evaluate the effect of the required changes. (8)

Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) is a mechanical structure designed to move a measuring probe to determine coordinates of points on a workpiece surface. They provide precise measurements for design, testing, assessment, profiling and reverse engineering of parts. (9)

Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP) is a structured approach to product and process design providing a uniform set of quality requirements that enable suppliers to design a product that satisfies the customer through the early identification of change, both intentional and subsidiary. (10)

Design Feasibility for Tooling (DFT)

To review part design and analyze whether it is feasible to build a tool to mold the part

Design for Manufacturing (DFM) is the process of designing parts, components or products for easier manufacturing with the goal of making a superior product at a lower cost by simplifying, optimizing and refining the product design. (11)

Start of Production (SOP) describes the point where the product has completed the development and validation processes and is ready to start mass production. (12)

American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA) demonstrates to the marketplace and to regulators that the laboratories have met the IAS accreditation requirements and are periodically monitored for compliance. (13)

Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG) is a not-for-profit organization where OEMs, suppliers, service providers, government entities and individuals in academia have worked collaboratively drive down costs and complexity from the automotive supply chain. (14)

Buzz, Squeak, Rattle (BSR) is the automotive industry term for the audible engineering challenges faced by all vehicle and component engineers. Minimizing BSR is of paramount importance when designing vehicle components and assemblies. (15)

Computer Aided Design (CAD) is the use of computer software to enable the generation, modification and optimization of a part or parts. (16)

Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) is a management philosophy used to reduce waste, increase efficiency, and increase internal (employees) and external (customer) satisfaction. It is an ongoing process that evaluates how an organization works and ways to improve its processes. (17)

Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) is a methodology using the Six Sigma principles in the design of products and their manufacturing support processes. DFSS helps businesses design products, processes and services. DFSS can be used to develop safe, reliable and competitive products faster and more efficiently. (18)

Design of Experiments (DoE) is a systematic method to determine the relationship between factors affecting a process and the output of that process, which will be used to optimize output. (19)

Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility (GR&R) is defined as the process used to evaluate a gauging instrument’s accuracy by ensuring its measurements are repeatable and reproducible. The process includes taking a series of measurements to certify that the output is the same value as the input, and that the same measurements are obtained under the same operating conditions over a set duration. (20)

Just-in-time (JIT) is a workflow approach aimed at reducing flow times within production systems, as well as response times from suppliers and to customers, thus helping organizations increase productivity while lowering costs. (21)

Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) Most often, OEMs purchase parts from other manufacturers or suppliers and use them to assemble their finished products. OEMs also make parts and subassemblies that are resold to other companies that assemble them into their own finished products. (22)

Total Quality Management (TQM) is the continual process of detecting and reducing or eliminating errors in manufacturing, streamlining supply chain management, improving the customer experience and ensuring that employees are up to speed with training. (23)

Design Verification Plan and Report (DVP&R) is a simple tool to document the plan that will be used to confirm that a product, system or component meets its design specifications and performance requirements. (24)

OK to Tool (OKTT) The design work of a component has been completed or frozen.  All elements of DFM and DFT have been optimized for the manufacturing facility.  Now it’s time to release the component CAD file to the tool shop to build the production tooling.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) is a language of symbols and standards designed and used by engineers and manufacturers to describe a product and facilitate communication between entities working together to produce something, ensuring everyone involved is speaking the same language. (25)

Product Demonstration Run (PDR) is a demonstration of how a product or software works, used by salespeople to introduce a product, its functionalities and its value to potential customers. (26)Appearance Approval Report(AAR) needs to be included in the Production Part Approval Process. The Appearance Approval Report is produced from the appearance approval inspection process and must be signed by the customer and include any other documents or concerns related to the appearance of the product. (27


BOM – Arena  Solutions https://www.arenasolutions.com/resources/articles/creating-bill-of-materials/

EBOM – Manufacturing Management http://www.manufacturingmanagement.co.uk/features/boms-away

PPAP – Rapid Global Business Solutions https://blog.rgbsi.com/what-to-know-about-ppap

PSW – iSixSigma https://www.isixsigma.com/dictionary/part-submission-warrant-psw/

DFMEA – Quality One https://quality-one.com/dfmea/

FMEA – Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Failure_mode_and_effects_analysis

PFMEA – FMEA-FMCEA http://www.fmea-fmeca.com/process-failure-mode-effect-analysis.html

ECR – Aligni Documentation https://www.aligni.com/doc/engineering-change-management/

CMM – Engineering 360  www.globalspec.com/learnmore/manufacturing_process_equipment/inspection_tools_instruments/coordinate_measuring_machines_cmm

APQP – Quality One https://quality-one.com/apqp/

DFM – East West https://news.ewmfg.com/blog/manufacturing/dfm-design-for-manufacturing

SOP – Automotive Engineering HQ https://www.automotiveengineeringhq.com/automotive-engineering-terminology-list/

A2LA – IAS https://www.iasonline.org/services/testing-laboratories/?utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=USA_-_Testing_Laboratory_Accreditation-Laboratory_Accreditation&utm_term=laboratory_accreditation&utm_content=Phrase&keyword=laboratory%20accreditation&gclid=EAIaIQobChMI1OO-yL-t5QIVEZJbCh2-Lg_wEAAYASAAEgKjYvD_BwE

AIAG – AIAG https://www.aiag.org/about

BSR – Science Direct https://www.sciencedirect.com/book/9780750684965/automotive-buzz-squeak-and-rattle#book-description

CAD – Creative Mechanisms https://www.creativemechanisms.com/blog/everything-you-need-to-know-about-computer-aided-design-cad

CQI – Study.com https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-continuous-quality-improvement-definition-process-methodologies.html

DFSS – Villanova University https://www.villanovau.com/resources/six-sigma/design-for-six-sigma/

DoE – ISixSigma https://www.isixsigma.com/tools-templates/design-of-experiments-doe/design-experiments-%E2%90%93-primer/

GR&R – ASQ https://asq.org/quality-resources/gage-repeatability

JIT – Plainview LeanKit https://leankit.com/learn/lean/what-is-just-in-time-manufacturing/

OEM – ISM, https://www.industrialspec.com/about-us/blog/detail/oem-original-equipment-parts-manufacturing-oe-oer-odm?st-t=google_dsa&gclid=EAIaIQobChMIuoH148Wt5QIVD__jBx0bUQXJEAAYBCAAEgLHrfD_BwE

TQM – Investopedia https://www.investopedia.com/terms/t/total-quality-management-tqm.asp

DVP&R – Quality One https://quality-one.com/dvpr/

GD&T – Fictive https://www.fictiv.com/hwg/fabricate/gdt-101-an-introduction-to-geometric-dimensioning-and-tolerancing

PDR – Hubspot https://blog.hubspot.com/sales/product-demo AAR – PPAP Documents http://ppapdocuments.com/ppap-documents/appearance-approval-report/